Ramos-Lara, N., J. L. Koprowski, B. Kryštufek, and I. E. Hoffman. 2014. Spermophilus citellus (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Mammalian Species 46:71-87


Nicolás Ramos-Lara
John L. Koprowski
Boris Kryštufek
Ilse E. Hoffmann

Spermophilus citellus (Linnaeus, 1766) is a medium-sized sciurid commonly called the European ground squirrel. The species inhabits grasslands in central and southeastern Europe on a range from short-grass steppes to meadow orchards, and from sea level to an elevation of 2,500 m. These squirrels live in colonies and construct burrows used for hibernation, reproduction, refuge, and resting. Due to serious declines in many portions of its range, the species is listed as ‘‘Vulnerable’’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is also protected by the Bern Convention (Appendix II), and the European Union Habitats and Species Directive (Annexes II and IV).

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